Response to the designation of the clergy as a social class / until 1789, there were three estates, nearly everywhere in Europe: clergy as the First, nobility as the Second, and the commoners as the Third Estate / Reformation served to negate the two central privileges of the clergy, freedom to take the Eucharist, first challenged in 1414 by Hus in Prague, and freedom to read the Word, first challenged by Zwingli in Zurich in 1531 / Calvin‘s threefold office: Jesus held the offices of munus regale (doctrine), mu­nus sacerdotale (liturgy), and munus propheticum (interpretation), which, after Pentecost, was passed on from the Christ to the Christians / doctrinal affairs thus lie with the local congregation rather than with Rome, priestly and pro­phetic functions lie with all true believers / all three with professional theological guidance provided by the verbi divini minister

Photo: flickr/James Cridland