Swiss writer and politician / 1819-90 / lived in Zurich, except for 1840-42 to study painting in Munich, and 1848-55 drama in Heidelberg and Berlin, both without success / 1848-49 with Ludwig Feuerbach, since then reduction of Christianity to the moral system, alongside strong critique of religion / 1854-55 and 1879-80 Green Henry, a novel of formation, breakthrough as the most prominent writer of bourgeois realism, church criticism / 1855-61 independent writer in Zurich, meetings with Ri­chard Wag­ner, Sem­per, Paul Heyse / 1861-76 first Official Secretary of the Canton of Zurich, as such wrote addresses for the Day of Prayer, opponent of Escher, advocate for complete de­mo­crati­zation / 1876-90 later works included Zürcher Novellen and Martin Salander